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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India
This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got. I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are) Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010. One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit. Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells. So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain). Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided. It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles.India bought something and paid for it.State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally. Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no. From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period,the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground. 1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example seeRajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist.[...]Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
How The Government Can Get 400,000 cr. to fight the Covid Slowdown
It’s obvious now that the lockdown will hurt India’s economy. And just as other countries are doing, we’ll need big stimulus to start pushing it back into gear. There’s a number of things that this process will involve: Old businesses can take time to come back to life. Because workers would have migrated, supply chains disrupted etc. They will need help to survive through a time when their factories or offices are shut, and to have paid intermediate salaries or rent. New businesses will have to be encouraged. Just as some businesses will need help, some of those will die. And those businesses will have to be replaced by others who are new and just getting in. Think of the barber shop that’s shut because it couldn’t pay rent for two months, but then people in the area will still need haircuts. Giving people and small businesses money directly into their accounts will probably become a necessity, to encourage people to spend or to pay for some of the damage caused due to the lockdown. The government will have to kickstart spending in a very large way – from better healthcare, to more infrastructure (to provide job) or simply to allow for the economy to rise again. This costs a ton of money. A rough estimate would be, say, Rs. 400,000 cr. The government doesn’t have this kind of money right now, and raising it by selling assets or issuing debt is enormously difficult. Because the debt it has is already quite large, though not as much compared to the western governments nowadays. However, it doesn’t need to take more debt. There’s money the government rightfully owns which sits idle in a very specific place. Here’s how it can get Rs. 400,000 cr. now. This kind of money doesn’t grow on trees, so what nonsense is this, Deepak? (I can hear you think) But bear with me, because I’ve thought this through. The money may not grow on trees, but there’s one big mega uncle who prints it, and generates a large amount of profit. It’s called the RBI. We have written earlier that the RBI has way too much money sitting in its balance sheet that it shouldn’t have. These are called “reserves” (very different from forex reserves). Read: The RBI is hoarding too much capital. Essentially, these are very large numbers of retained earnings, that has gone up even more now with this crisis. The extra earnings can be given back to the government, which can then spend it. Now, RBI makes a lot of money from multiple sources: It has nearly 10 lakh crore worth of government bonds, which, at 6.5% will give it roughly 65,000 cr. in interest per year. It also has, now, 35 lakh crores of Forex assets, (lets not call them “reserves” yet) , up over 6 lakh crores in the year. Yes, the RBI has bought a truckload of dollars this year. The forex reserves earned them over 74,000 cr. last year, and we expect this year to be a little more – probably 90,000 cr. all things considered. That is an income of 155,000 cr. already. Apart from this there is a big other benefit. Now the RBI owns all these dollars – it bought them when the rupee was lower (on average, probably Rs. 55 or so). When the dollar depreciates, to balance the accounts, the difference is placed in a Currency and Gold Revaluation Account (CGRA). The CGRA already had over Rs. 6 lakh crores last year. This year, considering the RBI has 450 billion dollars in foreign assets, that will add Rs. 4-5 per dollar as revaluation profit – around Rs. 200,000 cr. more in the CGRA. Due to accounting changes, and due to sales of dollars (around $30 billion in the full year) we should see around Rs. 60,000 cr. as a realized capital gain this year with the RBI. For details, here’s a good Ananth Narayan article, but note that I simply do not agree that such a profit is not a real profit – it’s as real as any rupee printed. The RBI doesn’t spend much: 7,000 cr. on employees, 5000 cr. on printing currency and this time, probably 10,000 cr. on payment of interest. What are you saying Deepak? All these big numbers…. Okay, ignore the nitty gritties. Simply put, RBI has a potential profit, this year, of around Rs. 200,000 cr. This is money it can remit straight to the government this year. Doesn’t it do that always? Well, no. The RBI is not very happy to be paying the government anything, to be honest. They keep building random “buffers” to avoid having to pay the government. See what all they have: Contingency fund: 200,000 cr. Why? We have no idea. The RBI never participates in any contingency whatsoever; all bank rescues are funded by the government or the PSUs or such. The RBI doesn’t even like to buy anything that isn’t government bonds, so they never take any balance sheet risk. There is no need for a contingency reserve at the RBI. And that too, 200,000 cr. – that’s more than 30% of India’s fiscal deficit! Come on. You might keep a little bit here, but to hoard such a large number here is unnecessary. Currency revaluation account: Now, over 800,000 cr. This is basically reflecting the fact that RBI bought dollars at Rs. 55 or gold at Rs. 1600 per gram and now the dollar is at 75, and gold is at 3800. This is huge. They keep adding to this fund every year, needlessly – a change in accounting procedure may help remove it. Asset Development Fund: Rs. 23,000 cr. Again, why? All major things owned by the RBI are now, by decree, transferred to the government. Examples: SBI, NABARD, NHB. Why should the RBI keep a reserve for this, especially when they have collectively spend less than 5000 cr. in the last five years from such a fund? What’s the point? Other stuff: Rs. 200,000 cr. This contains items like unrealized gains on Government bonds and foreign bonds Again, this should be a profit but is not recorded as one just so that they can avoid having to pay the government. (One simple way to record it is to sell all the bonds and buy them back instantly, converting all the unrealized gains to realised profit) In total, the RBI has a Rs. 13.5 lakh crores of extra profit (retained earnings of sorts) on its balance sheet. Every year, it generates a large profit and just keeps a good portion in each of these sub clauses, and avoids paying the government. In a partial correction, last year, they discovered that the excess on the balance sheet was too large, and paid out Rs. 1.76 lakh crores as dividend, but it still leaves a huge amount of room for more. You said Rs. 400,000 cr…. Yes, I’m coming to that. The RBI’s balance sheet is Rs. 47 lakh crores. The “equity” stuff on the balance sheet, which includes the “extra” stuff we talked about – is more than 13 lakh crores. That’s like 27% of their balance sheet. According to the recent Bimal Jalan committee report, the RBI should have a total buffer of about 21% – around 9.8 lakh crores. Given that they have more than 13.5 lakh crores – roughly 400,000 cr. can be given back to the government as dividend. But what will they sell to give dividends? Oh they don’t have to sell anything. The RBI has an account for the government. (It’s the govt’s banker). So you transfer from one account (the retained earnings) to another. That’s all. ￼Well, what happens when the government spends the money? It goes to a bank account with some bank. So that banks account with the RBI will swell up and the government’s will reduce. The RBI balance sheet doesn’t change – only the constituents do. Wait. Why all this now? Let’s get serious. This is a massive economic blow for the country. We will easily lose over 4% of GDP just to the lack of activity for a month. This has to be made up by massive government spending. That spending has to be financed. Already, the highest expenditure of the govt is interest payments. (Over 5 lakh crores in interest. The next highest entry, defence spending, is 40% lower!) The government may still need to borrow but why should it borrow when the RBI, which is owned by the government, has all the bloat sitting inside it? That’s like saying I have a lot of fixed deposits but let me go borrow money instead to pay for my urgent medical bills, even though I’m reeling under interest payments. The country needs help. We need to relax the ridiculously huge buffers maintained by the RBI in order for the government to spend. The RBI could pay a lot more – but this year, a 400,000 cr. payment looks very achievable without stepping on some toes. I’m not even asking for the government to eat into RBI’s already created massive reserves. Just that they take what profit would have been generated in this one year, instead of allowing RBI to bloat what is already much larger retained profits than required. Remember, most central banks have much lower retained equity as a percentage of their balance sheet. RBI is at 23% currently. Brazil is at 1%, Russia at 13%, South Africa at 1% and the closest perhaps is Germany at 13%. India’s RBI has simply way too much in terms of retained earnings and buffers. In the times of a crisis, you have to use buffers. This is a crisis. This is what a buffer was meant for. I know that a vast crowd will cry tears about how this undermines the independence of the RBI or some such random spiel, but this is not a time to listen to them. It’s time for us to place money in the hands of those that will shoulder the burden, and to not let it lie in forever-unused buffers like within the RBI. Note: What about inflation, you might ask. There will be no inflation by this; none of the above will cause balance sheet expansion of the RBI. And btw, the whole world is inflating and doing so heavily. And they’re all going to support their own countries with specific packages. In that context, there is very little likelihood of any inflation – in fact we’ll have to fight deflation in a slowdown. https://www.capitalmind.in/2020/04/how-the-government-can-get-400000-cr-to-fight-the-covid-slowdown/
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Hello, Just wanted to share some of my legitimate concerns around decentralised finance with the broader community. To be quite clear - I am a huge fan of Ethereum and DeFi and believe this could lead to the future of finance. However, I do worry if there is a circle jerk within the community that could lead to a lack of adoption in the coming months. I will try and keep this as short as possible. By all means, do understand I am coming from the pov of sharing constructive criticism and not dissing on the efforts of those building. If you are solving for these problems in particular, please ping me and I'd love to talk further with you
On-ramps The largest problem for much of the developing world is the fact that while DAI can without doubt give dollar exposure, acquiring them is quite a difficult task. In fact if DAI demand goes up substantially in a region, it could have premiums of upto 25% which makes it a bad on-ramp tool without necessary liquidity in place. (check Wazir X p2p USDT rates in India for context). This problem is not endemic to DAI alone but is applicable to stable tokens of all kinds. With regional regulations in nations like Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Phillipines, Malaysia and India not being clear on stable tokens in particular, it becomes an uphill task for developers to build on it. More importantly, it becomes less appealing for the average individual to use. Now typically this wouldnt matter if the point of DeFi was to be a niche project aimed at a small community. However, DeFi has the power to be the first mass market blockchain tool for the world. Consider it to be the "e-mail" or "napster" moment for blockchain based applications. IF we are to scale then on-ramps and off-ramps need to be solved for. This can happen only and if the community begins engaging with regional regulators and exchanges begin providing solutions. In an ideal world, acquiring stable tokens should be as easy as venmo'ing someone $10 dollar and receiving say $9.90 (1% fee) in Incento (incento.io seems interesting, not shilling but do check them out!)
Incumbent Efficiency In order for a system to scale past a certain point, the value add it brings needs to be considerably higher than the incumbent. Depending on the size of the remittance market, there exists multiple payments and wire transfer corridors set up by startups today to solve for quick transfers. In fact during times when a blockchain like those of Ethereum's or Bitcoin's are clogged - transferwise can prove to be a cheaper, better alternative than tokens. This is not to diss on the fact that decentralisation and immutability has a price attached to them, but for the average user today alternatives are far better than token based products. The challenge when it comes to scaling - especially towards L2 is whether products can be incrementally better than their incumbents in exchange for some trade offs (eg: relative centralisation in lightning for minimal fees and quicker confirmation). Today's DeFi apps have to make a call between being ideological and efficient because it seems there is a price attached to ideology and retail users aren't willing to pay that price.
Slippage Much props to Kyber and Uniswap for solving for this on most DeFi apps but there remains challenges in how settlements for defi instruments today happen. As the scale of volume on products like DyDx and Nuo increase and the expected accuracy at which trade settlements are anticipated to be limited to, there will come a point in time where traditional market-makers will have to enter the system. At $500 million the DeFi space's largest traders constantly reel from price slippages and a lack of liquidity. How can we scale to $10 billion or $1 trillion without the kind of liquidity that could instill confidence in large whales. In order to solve this, there will come a point in time where hedge funds and dark pool service providers from traditional markets begin targetting DeFi instruments. The community will likely see this as an all out assault on the principles DeFi has been built upon but to be honest, this will be a quintessential requirement for the space to grow. We are seeing an early variant of this already with the likes of Cred raising $50 million to re-issue as debt (yes, not entirely DeFi) or with MakerDAO having VC partners that come from traditional backgrounds. Even in the case of products like Dharma and compound, the market-makers are hedge funds. We will see a convergence of traditional market products and DeFi soon. That will be an exciting phase imo.
Product-Market Fit Debt is one of the oldest financial innovations in the markets. Quite literally. Some of the first ever tablets recorded debt obligations and as such have been quintessential to the growth of human civilisation. MakerDAO's proposition of issuing token backed debt is by all means revolutionary but in order to see true scale, DeFi has to grow beyond the individuals that can give assets as collateral. I reckon there will be a new layer of growth for DeFi soon that will be powered with open-data and AI. One where an individual's credit worthiness could be checked with the individual's permission on basis of on-chain tx activity and self sovereign identity. I also see a market for AI based lending rate predictions and forex management by central banks. Autonomous agents can realistically analyse tx's in and out of a country, account for macro-economic indicators and optimise internal lending rates and foreign currency reserves. Ofcourse it is too early for any of this to take place but within the next decade our markets will be far more (i) closer due to globalisation and (ii) automated due to improvements in AI. DeFi is all well and good but if we are going to beat the same old drums of economic instruments that were created thousands of years back, there may be no real value proposition here. LsDAI, rDAI, CDAI, DAI... are all interesting but the average user sees no value yet. Which makes me wonder if we are sitting around patting each other's back before we see something productive (a unicorn from the DeFi ecosystem perhaps?)
Scale 4.5 billion. That's the number of unbanked individuals that can be catered to with an L2 payments solution powered by Ethereum. Challenges? On-ramp, storage of private keys, user education and bloody hell - marketing and user education. Emphasis on the last 2 because I feel not much focus is given on it. We can no longer build and hope the markets come. We are in an era of Zombie startups where startups with north of $100 million+ valuations in Mcap, that raised north of $10million in 2017 from ICOs are sitting on ~1000 users a month. People think the alts blood seepage is done but it is likely that that bleeding wont stop until we find users. And when we do find users, we cant expect them to be using a gazillion tokens, each with weird token economics and even more complex functioning to be using them. Standardising of token interactions through wallets and interoperability will solve for these challenges but its time we asked what are the biggest problems DeFi can solve today? Here are some hints.. NFT based Income share agreements -Non collateralised debt for gig economy corporations that are registered as DAOs -DAO treasury management -Forex off-ramps for tourists (P2P) More on these later..
Kin Swap FAQ + Video Tutorials + Guides (Multiple Languages)
1) Do I need to swap? Yes. Kin is migrating to its own Blockchain which will be the only system connected to their SDKs. If you do not transfer your Kin you will be left with the ERC-20 tokens. The Kin Foundation claims there will be an on-going one way swap method manually via Kin's support staff in the future if you miss the swap window. We have no further details on how this process will work, how long it will take or if it will always be available. Kin ERC20 tokens will not be used in the main Kin blockchain, SDK or apps. 2) Can't I swap back? No. The original plan was to have a programmatic 1:1 swap always available. This was abandoned. This is a one-time swap. It is only available through exchange partners. 3) Do I need to swap my Kin if it is in an app like Kik, Kinit, Kinny, Swelly or MadLipz? No. This Kin is being migrated for you. 4) Do I need to swap my Kin if I have it in an exchange? Yes. If your exchange is not:
Then you MUST move your Kin in order to swap it. It will not swap automatically. 5) Will other exchanges support the swap? We don't know. The Kin documentation is unclear, and it seems unlikely based on the time constraints set. If they do, there is no guarantee that there will not be a fee. 6) Are their fees for the transaction? Kin's documentation has said partners are not charging fees. There still may be network fees. You should talk to the customer support of each service before swapping if you are worried about fees. 7) If my Kin is in a wallet like Jaxx, MEW, Coinimi, etc do I have to swap? Yes. You must manually swap. 8) Is there any way to swap that is not an exchange? Yes. CoinSwitch and Changelly are technically not exchanges but also support the swap. 9) Is there anyway to swap that is not a third-party service? No. 10) How much time do I have? For the current exchanges you have until April 10th. (EST) For CoinSwitch and Changelly you have until June 12th. 11) What happens after June 12th? We have no idea. We are told there will be a manual swap method available for individuals who were unable to swap prior to that time. What this looks like is still unclear. 12) How do I swap? Right now we are in Phase 2 of the swap, there are less options for swapping currently. You can see the Phase 2 guide here: http://nufi.io/how-to-swap-your-kin-with-p2pb2b/ 13) Should I use FreeWallet, AtomicWallet or TrustWallet? Both of those services come with risks. FreeWallet is centralized and is owned by HitBTC a controversial exchange commonly accused of scamming. AtomicWallet requires running third-party software on your system. Neither are ideal or recommended. If you are using a wallet you should consider buying a Ledger device, or Creating a Paper Wallet?. If neither of those are an option then you can use TrustWallet by Binance. 14) Which exchange is the safest? That is a matter of personal opinion. Right now your only option is P2PB2B 15) Should I use CoinSwitch? CoinSwitch is an unknown and fairly new team from India. The process of switching has been smooth for some people so far, but, it is worth proceeding with caution. Multiple virus scanners such as F-Secure and McAffee also suggest it is an unsafe site. The main problem is that to use Changelly or CoinSwitch you must either manually set up your Ledger to support Kin, or use AtomicWallet or FreeWallet - which is not advisable. 16) When will I get my Kin? If you use the instant switching from CoinSwitch or Changelly you should get the Kin3 within a few minutes. If you use Lykke or LAToken you will get your Kin3 March 26th. If you use any of the other exchanges you will get your Kin3 on March 21st. For Phase 2 using P2PB2B you will get your coins on April 12th or 13th. 17) Is Trezor supported? No. 18) If my Kin are in HitBTC do I need to do anything? Technically no. But, HitBTC has very expensive withdraw fees and a pretty bad reputation. You should check out the guide below for other options. 19) If I am out of the country and away from my hardware wallet for 3-6+ months how will I deal with the swap? This has been discussed with Kin support, they claim they will have a manual email service for people who are in this situation. No further information has been given at this time. It is unclear if any proof is required or what the process involves. It is unclear if the process is only for ICO holders. 20) What if I have Kin on Stellar from Stellarport etc? Stellar assets like that are issued as "IOUs" from the Stellar Anchor you bought them at. They are not tokens. In theory, who ever sold you the IOU should have Kin1 tokens that they are holding in balance when issued. They should swap these tokens to Kin3 and provide you with a Kin3 IOU or the Kin3 itself. You will need to contact the support at your Stellar Anchor to confirm more. 21) Are more exchanges coming? Yes. We know more exchanges are coming, but we have no idea when, or which exchanges. 22) I'm doing your tutorial on How to Build Manual Ledger Transactions but getting the error code op_no_destination? This means the wallet you are trying to send to isn't activated yet. Wallets on Stellar don't get created when the keypair is generated, they get created by another wallet activating and funding them. You must use the operation "CreateAccount" rather than "Payment" when building the transaction. 23) I'm doing your tutorial on How to Build Manual Ledger Transactions but getting the error code Unsupported Media Type? Most likely you are on the Kin test network and not the main network. Check the upper right hand corner of the lab and switch to the public network. 24) How do I transfer from MEW? Simply follow either the How to Swap Kin with Exchanges (Beginners) or How to Swap Kin with Ledger (Advanced Users Only) but instead of sending from a Ledger send the tokens from your MEW wallet. If you choose to do the instant swap you'll need to have a Kin3 compatible wallet such as a paper wallet (How to create a Kin Paper Wallet/What is a Paper Wallet?) 24) I have other questions not answered here? I've set up a specific Question Thread to better keep track of issues. 25) Where can I stay up to date on this stuff? Since there hasn't been much official guidance, I've been tweeting about important updates as they develop. You can follow the account I set up here: @crypto_adamsc1
Send Money To Canada At Best Canadian Dollar Rates On BookMyForex
Are you looking for a good forex company or a bank for money transfer to Canada from India? Sending money from India to Canada is easy and simple with BookMyForex and you can check the live Canadian dollar rate on BookMyForex by just doing it all online from the comforts of your home. Sending money to another Country basically overseas or Abroad is called remittance and Remittance can be counted as two types. Outward Remittance: When You Send Money From India to A Foreign Country Inward Remittance: When You Send Money To India from a Foreign Country Methods of Sending Money To Canada: You can send money to Canada from India through following two methods: Wire Transfer: Wire transfers are direct bank to bank transfers where money from an Indian bank account is directly transferred to your beneficiary's bank account abroad. Popular opinion is that Wire transfers from India are the best and most convenient way to transfer money abroad -Money exchangers: They are fast but very expensive and not entirely reliable or secure. You don't need an account but the process is time-consuming and you need proof of residence and identity to send money from India. Money changers may want you to register and verify the recipient or the beneficiary. This is to protect the security of your fund, to prevent fraud, and to make future remittances more streamlined. -Online Forex Companies like BookMyForex- It provides you Fast, safe, reliable, and secure. Zero charges, no hidden costs, and better rates than anyone else. There are several aspects in which BookMyForex far outweighs other money changers and banks when you need to send money from India to Canada or any other country. We will tell you how... Company Like BookMyForex Vs Banks The exchange rates offered by banks are up to 5% higher than those as compared by BookMyForex. Also, banks follow the practice of offering one card rates or daily rates that work out to far more expensive than live and real-time rates offered by BookMyForex (the first and only currency exchange in India to do so) for money transfer to Canada from India. On the other hand, since BookMyForex is an online platform for forex transactions, you can book your order online anytime and from anywhere as per your convenience. You get guaranteed best rates when you send money to Canada from India. Online Exchangers VS Offline Exchangers Many forex players are not sure about the documentation required for money remittance and can make you go back and forth unnecessarily, which can be quite a pain! Just like banks, other currency exchangers also operate at 'daily rates' which are not comparable to the live rates offered by BookMyForex for money transfer to Canada from India. Some local money changers offer very lucrative exchange rates provided you don't take a bill for your transaction to send money from India to Canada. Doing so means buying currency from the black market, and if caught, both, the dealer and the customer, are punishable by law and can land you behind bars. Would you really want to take that risk? Being an online Company, BookMyForex provides customers the convenience of ordering online and the guaranteed best rates to send money from India to Canada because there are no infrastructure costs involved. Now, get the currency Exchange services from cities like Mohali, Patiala, Dehradun and other big cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai
-Pakistan to host ‘AdAsia – Asian Advertising Congress’ this year In a logo unveiling ceremony held at Faletti’s Hotel Lahore, on Sunday, it was revealed that AdAsia 2019 —Asian Advertising Congress is going to be held in Pakistan this year. AdAsia is the largest and most prestigious advertising congress in Asia, organized bi-annually by the Asian Federation of Advertising Associations (AFAA). The AdAsia 2019 Congress will be held in Lahore at the Lahore International Expo Centre from December 3 to 5. The theme for the Congress is ‘Celebrasian: Celebration of Advertising and Creativity in Asia’. -IDB to lend Pakistan oil worth $4.5 bn The spokesperson for the Ministry of Finance on Saturday claimed that the Saudi-backed Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) will lend Pakistan oil worth $4.5 billion. “The IsDB will lend Pakistan oil worth $4.5 billion over three years. The oil will be lent in three installments of $1.5 billion each every year,” the spokesperson added. The Ministry of Finance spokesperson further said that in the first phase they have received oil worth $100 million and oil worth $270 million will be lent in the second phase. “We are also in talks with the IsDB regarding lending of liquefied natural gas (LNG),” the spokesperson added. -Economic revival: PTI government relief package earns Rs 125 billion immediately The federal government’s relief package for the stock market in the ‘Mini-budget’ on January 23 has brought positive impact. KSE-100 index settled at 40,254 points with a rise of 958 points within one week. The business-friendly concessions including abolition of the advance tax of 0.02pc on share trading under Presumptive Tax Regime and super tax in the mini-budget have been welcomed by the stockbrokers and industrialists altogether. -69 women constables complete elite commando training in K-P Over 7,000 personnel of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (K-P) police, including 69 women constables, have successfully completed a grueling Elite Commando Training Course. As per a statement issued by K-P police’s public relations, the police personnel completed training in 15 basic courses conducted at different training centres. Most policemen, including the women constables, voluntarily opted for the tough four-month long course. The communique also said another batch of women commandos is currently being trained and shall soon be elevated to the rank of elite commandos. -Karachi police chief makes surprise visits, suspends four police officials In a surprise move, Additional Inspector General Police Dr Amir Shaikh on Saturday visited different areas of the city, disguising himself as a common citizen to witness the performance the police force. A police spokesperson said that the Karachi police chief suspended four police officials, including two ASIs over violation of duty rules and harassing public. He said that the police officials were found harassing people instead of controlling traffic at MT Khan Road in Sultanabad. The officials were from Jackson and Sultanabad police stations, said the spokesperson and added that the police chief had directed SP Traffic city and DSP to submit report over the issue. In-charges of Jackson and Sultanabad police stations along with record keepers were also summoned by the AIG Dr Amir Shaikh, said the spokesperson. -In a historical move, Pakistan elected as Vice Chair of Asia Pacific Ministerial Forum Pakistan was elected as the vice chair at the third UN Environment’s Forum of Ministers and Environment Authorities of Asia Pacific that was held in Singapore from January 23 till January 25. The newswas revealed in a tweet by Adviser to Prime Minister on Climate Change Malik Amin Aslam. He said Pakistan got elected to the position owing to the country’s ‘sincere and dedicated’ environment preservation endeavours. -Pakistan Army achieves historic milestone on Pakistan Afghanistan border fencing Director General of Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) Major General Asif Ghafoor Sunday said work on about 900 kilometer fence along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border had been completed. Briefing a team of journalists and anchor-persons at Ghulam Khan, a bordering village in North Waziristan Agency,he said the work on erection of about 1200 km chunk, the most sensitive portion out of the total 2600 km long border with the neighbouring country, had commenced last year. Zero Point is the entry and exit point of Pakistan from Afghanistan where a formal border post was constructed last year Major Gen Asif Ghafoor said the project would cost about Rs 70 billion, which also included the cost of gadgets and surveillance equipment to keep strict vigil on the illicit movement from across the border. He said the fence had amply helped check the movement of terrorists from across the border and it would further assist after completion of the project which was expected to culminate next year. The visit of media-persons was conducted for the first time in the country's history as no such activity could have happened as all the area had been “no go area” for the civilians or even by the security forces themselves. -Foreign Media representatives visit North Waziristan, stunned with Pakistan Army successes against terrorism Local and foreign media representatives on Sunday visited Peshawar, Miranshah, and Ghulam Khan Border terminals along with Director General ISPR Major General Asif Ghafoor for the first time after military operations. It was the first direct interaction of the media with local people, who while standing in Miranshah Bazar, talked to reporters about improved peace situation and administrative issues in the area. They lauded Pakistan Army for its efforts in restoring peace and development. -Pakistan Cement Exports register significant rise in first half of FY 2018 - 19 The export of cement from the country witnessed increase of 32.4 percent during first half of current fiscal year as compared to same period of last year. The export of the commodity increased to $157 million in July-December (2018-19) against the export worth of $118.586 million in sameperiod of last year, a latest data released by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) said. In term of quantity, the cement export recorded 55.52 percent increase to 3.671 million Metric Ton (MT) during the period under review as compared to export of 2.36 million MT cement during same period of previous year. On year-on-year basis, the cement export jumped by 78.02 percent to $25.89 million in December 2018 from $14.54 million of cement export during December 2017, the data revealed. The overall export of goods during first half of current fiscal year recorded an increase of 2.19 percent to $11.216 billion against the exports of $10.976 billion recorded during same period of last year. -KP Tourism. Potential stuns audience at International Tourism Fair in Europe A large number of visitors, tourists and investors thronged the stall of Tourism Corporation Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (TCKP) at the tourism trade fair at Feria de Madrid, Spain, and showed keen interest in the KP’s tourism potential. The TCKP team highlighted salient features of the cultural and tourist resorts through video documentaries, pictures, brochures and posters. The visitors were informed that 70 percent of tourist resorts were located in KP and the foreign tourists can now visit any place without any restriction and obtaining Non-Objection Certificate. The KP participation in fair encouraged the international tour operators to bring cultural and mountaineering expeditions to the province, which will highlight Pakistan as one of the best tourist destinations for international tourists. -Foundation stone laid for $200 million knowledge city in Pakistan, first ever in County's history Prime Minister Imran Khan Sunday inaugurated the first academic block of the NAMAL Knowledge City. The vision behind Namal Knowledge City is to create a hub of knowledge exchange and research in Mianwali. The Knowledge City will include academic blocks, a knowledge center, a sports complex, sports grounds, a hospital, technology parks, business centers, shopping malls, a dairy farm, a resort, software houses, hotels, a primary school, and a housing colony for the faculty. A total of US$ 200 million will be spent on the construction of the Knowledge City which will be built on the concept of a zero carbon foot print and completed by the year 2027. It will have a population of 11,000 with construction spread over 4 million square feet. It will accommodate 7,000 students with 600 faculty members. -E Rozgar Programme launched, Click for Registration The Punjab IT Board and Ministry of Youth Affairs has jointly launched a three-month free E-Rozgar Training Programe for the youth, aimed at imparting vocational training to the jobless, enabling them to earn their livelihood honourably. In this regard, the admission has started for enrollment in these technical courses and the last date for the on-line registration is the 9th of the next month. The requisites of getting admission include that the applicant should have an NCIC, his minimum age 16, maximum age 35 and should be jobless. -Pakistan China ink deal worth billions of dollars today: Report A Chinese company will invest billion of dollars in mineral exploration and processing projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A Memorandum of Understanding in this regard has been signed in China today. According to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Minister for Mineral Development Dr. Amjad Ali, the Chinese company will setup mineral industrial park in Rashakai Special Economic Zone. -Pakistan's NESPAK completes 3,900 mega projects in Pakistan and across 37 countries of World worth Rs 19,000 billions National Engineering Services Pakistan (NESPAK) has successfully completed 3,900 development projects within Pakistan and 37 in other countries with an accumulative cost of Rs 19,000 billion since its establishment, 45 years ago. NESPAK Managing Director Dr. Tahir Masood told media here Saturday that foreign countries where NESPAK has extended engineering consultancy services were mostly located in the Middle East, Far East, Central Asia and Africa. In this way, he added, NESPAK had placed the country on the export map of the world and was committed to provide multi-disciplinary engineering consultancy services with the highest level of professionalism and dedication. -Government launches Dominted Bank bond PTI government is launching yet another economic initiative for overseas Pakistanis to attract billions of dollars for balance of payment and enhancing reserves. PTI government is launching dollar-denominated diaspora bond named Pakistan Banao Certificate (PBC) on January 31st. The diaspora bond is being launched to take advantage of international savings of overseas Pakistani’s and bolstering its foreign exchange reserves. According to details shared by the Finance Minister Asad Umar , the certificates would be of two types, one of three years offering 6.25% return and the other with five-year maturity offering 6.75% return. Mr Umar said four banks had been selected to complete the transactions. -Rupee hits seven-week high at 138.78 Pakistani currency has recovered to a seven-week high at Rs138.78 against the US dollar in inter-bank market on Friday, according to the State Bank of Pakistan, after the country successfully mitigated the risk of default following receipt of $2 billion from friendly countries. Simultaneously, the rupee revived to a four-week high at retail market to 139 against the greenback on Saturday, according to a forex website. “The $2 billion inflows from the UAE and Saudi Arabia (on Thursday and Friday) has partially eased the panic at currency markets,” said a banker on condition of anonymity. -PM Imran discusses major proposals to revive PIA As Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) struggles to rein in mounting losses, Prime Minister Imran Khan discussed major proposals presented at a high-level meeting to turn around the financially troubled national flag carrier. The prime minister chaired the meeting at the PM Office earlier this month, which was attended by top cabinet members, civil bureaucracy and military officers. The premier directed the authorities to arrange additional guarantees of Rs15 billion as interim relief for PIA. A proposal was endorsed to freeze PIA’s outstanding dues, amounting to over Rs80 billion, which were payable to the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) along with late payment surcharge, according to minutes of the meeting available with The Express Tribune. -World Bank releases $58m for house financing The World Bank has disbursed $58 million for house financing in Pakistan and the federal cabinet has approved the transfer of the fund to Pakistan Mortgage Refinance Company (PMRC). “It ($58 million – Rs7.8 billion) is a World Bank credit line for PMRC,” PMRC Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer Mudassir Hussain Khan told The Express Tribune. “The cabinet has approved the transfer of the fund. It will take around a week to 10 days before the money reaches PMRC account.” -Talks between Pakistan, China for FTA to begin next month Federal Secretary for Trade, Younus Dagha has said that the talks between Pakistan and China for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) will commence next month. Talking to a delegation of the Trade Development Authority’s officials in Lahore, he expressed optimism that the new trade agreement with China will help thrive national economy and would be in the best interests of both the friendly countries. “The trade deficit of Pakistan has decreased by five per cent during the incumbent government and our exports are increasing day by day.” He said the expansion of the trade volume with India depends on the decisions of the governments of both the countries. He informed that trade with Afghanistan is also improving. -Amended finance bill to reduce cost of doing business: PEW The Pakistan Economy Watch (PEW) on Sunday said the recently amended finance bill will reduce the cost of doing business which in turn, will reduce the prices of many items. The move will support businesses and help exporters regain ground in the international market as the government has reduced and abolished several taxes to lift economic activities, it said. The government will lose almost seven billion rupees in revenue but it will gain more in the shape of foreign exchange, said PEW President Dr. Murtaza Mughal. He said the recommendations will be applicable from the next fiscal term but it has already elevated business sentiments as many leading business groups are planning to boost investments. -Economic reforms help PSX gain 958 points in week The benchmark KSE-100 index accelerated by 958 points in the outgoing week and settled at 40,265 points, providing a weekly return of 2.44pc, owing to improved sentiment on account of the economic reforms package announced by the government. The Finance Supplementary (Second Amendment) Bill, 2019 was broadly focused on improving ease of doing business, incentivizing export-oriented/industrial sectors and elimination of domestic growth hampering impediments. A key demand from the stock market to abolish the advance tax of 0.02pc was accepted, while the government also allowed capital losses to be carried forward for three years, thereby impacting the investor sentiment positively. -Govt to announce medium-term economic framework in coming week: Hammad Azhar The Minister of State for Revenue Hammad Azhar on Friday said the government will announce a medium-term economic framework in the coming week. The forthcoming medium-term economic framework will bring measures that will enhance exports and investments, said Azhar while speaking at a seminar on “Economic Reforms: Way forward”, organised by the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), reports an English daily. He shared the government is moving towards execution a direct taxation regime whilst gradually restricting indirect taxes. Mr Azhar underlined that the supplementary budget which was announced on Wednesday didn’t target fiscal and monetary measures but was an economic reforms package to resuscitate and enhance growth and investment. -Economic reforms package to help boost exports, trade and investment State Minister for Revenue Hamad Azhar on Friday said that economic reforms package announced by the PTI government will help in boosting exports, trade and investment. Talking to a private news channel, he said the economic reforms package will prove to be helpful in overcoming the trade and fiscal deficit. Mr Azhar said due to effective economic policies of the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government, the international investors are desirous of investment in Pakistan. The government is taking many steps for the revival and betterment of the economy, he added. -Tale as old as time: Labyrinth of tunnels discovered under Lahore Fort A labyrinth of underground tunnels, as well as hidden basements, has been discovered under Lahore Fort. Immortalised in short stories, these passages have always been hidden from the naked eye. However, during excavation, the Walled City of Lahore Authority (WCLA) has discovered two underground tunnels and an arsenal which are currently under restoration. A symbol of the opulence of the Mughals, Lahore Fort has kept many a secret for hundreds of years; secrets which are now slowly being revealed. During excavation and restoration work, WCLA recently discovered a passage of underground tunnels which run underneath the fortress. This has caused tourists, hungry for information on the underground tunnels, to throng to the citadel and present their own theories on how the passages were used. -Indonesia, Pakistan ties poised for a quantum leap, says envoy Counsellor and head of cultural section Embassy of Republic of Indonesia Deny Tri Basuki has said Indonesia and Pakistan share strong socio-cultural and religious bond rooted in history. Pakistan and Indonesia stand proudly together as two of the largest Muslim populated countries and emerging economies of creative and talented people. He expressed these views on the occasion of a business gathering organised by tourism ministry of Indonesia in collaboration with the Indonesian embassy. A large number of stakeholders hailing from the travel and aviation industry of Pakistan attended the event. -Japanese aircraft take part in pre Aman-19 exercise The Pakistan Navy is hosting the 6th series of AMAN-19 – a Multinational Maritime Exercise – in February 2019 in Karachi, and two Japanese Naval P3C aircrafts of Deployed Maritime Force for Anti-Piracy Enforcement (DAPE) visited the PNS Mehran in Karachi for the pre-AMAN-19 exercise. According to a press statement issued by the navy’s Director General Public Relations (DGPR) on Saturday, the Japanese aircrew participated in various events including search and rescue (SAR) and counter piracy (CP) exercises along with the navy aircrew. The Japanese contingent also visited maritime and Pakistan Air Force (PAF) museums to learn about the historic achievements of the two forces. -‘Chinese, Russian firms keen to invest in PSM’ Adviser to Prime Minister on Commerce Abdul Razak Dawood revealed that three Chinese and three Russian firms have shown interest in investing in Pakistan Steel Mills (PSM). Addressing a ceremony held for the inauguration of International Steels Limited’s new plant, he said that the committee tasked with revival of PSM has drafted its recommendations and the Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) will make a decision by March. -China has given Pakistan additional access to its market: Dawood Prime Minister’s Adviser for Trade and Industry Abdul Razzak Dawood on Saturday said the government is working to hammer out national industrial and tariff policies, ARY News reported. Dawood while talking to industrialists in Karachi, said that China has granted Pakistan an additional access to its market. “We are working to slash unnecessary imports and increase exports”. He said unnecessary items will be removed from shelves of super markets and precious foreign exchange will not be spent on such imports. The adviser said the government has taken effective steps to facilitate business in mini budget, which will be approved in next seven day. -Pakistani Teacher Shortlisted for Cambridge’s Most Dedicated Teacher Award Cambridge University Press has shortlisted a Pakistani teacher, Ahmed Saya, for the ‘Most Dedicated Teacher’ award. Ahmed Saya, an A-level teacher from Karachi, is one of the six brilliant minds around the world to be shortlisted for the prize. The competition included entries of 3500+ teachers from over 140 countries for the prestigious award. Cambridge’s official Twitter handle said it was a tough call, but they shortlisted six teachers for this year’s Dedicated Teacher Awards. -Swiss Investor to Open A Chain of Luxury Hotels in Pakistan Swiss International Hotels & Resorts is mulling to open a chain of its luxury hotels in different cities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). The President and CEO of Swiss International Hotels & Resorts, Henri (Hans) WR Kennedie informed this to Chief Minister KP Mahmood Khan during a meeting on Friday. During the meeting, Henri told CM Khan that they were already working on a plan to establish luxury hospitalities in various parts of the province.
13 Ways to Maximise your IVF Success & Minimise your IVF Cost
https://preview.redd.it/fx11dz312u041.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bf4535866826b05ac61e65dbbfff5a84a435a1b5 “Only 30-35% of couples going for IVF get successful in their journey but with the right approach and expertise the success rate can be increased upto two folds”– Dr. Neha Jain The field of IVF has seen tremendous growth in the past few years. India is one of the countries which has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of infertility treatments. According to NARI (National ART Registry of India) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the infertility number has increased significantly. The success rate of the treatment is associated with the age, lifestyle, genetic factors of the conceiving mother and many other factors. According to the CDC (Centre for Disease Control), the success rate varies from 35 to 38 percent.. Lower rates are observed with patients of higher age bracket. One of the factors impacting success is stress. The knowledge and acceptance of infertility take a toll on the couple's mental health. Like any other medical procedure, maintaining the proper health of the couples involved is inevitable to obtain expected results in IVF. It is crucial especially for the mothers conceiving through IVF. The health care should begin as soon as you decide to choose the assisted reproductive technology to get pregnant. Let us discuss measures to increase the chances of a successful IVF treatment and minimize your billing while you are going through the most crucial phase of your life. This blog aims to introduce ways to minimize the treatment costs, reduce stress and maximize the chances of a safe and successful procedure. So, let’s take a look atHow to Increase Your Chances of IVF Success and minimize your IVF cost Feel free to skip ahead if one topic catches your eye:
Do your homework
Don’t wait until it’s too late
Nutrition and weight balance
Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D
Gender specific supplements to add in your routine
Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health
Egg donation program
Travel for IVF
Check your insurance
How Can You Pay for IVF?
Smoking and Alcohol
https://preview.redd.it/x336tfab2u041.jpg?width=658&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fd03ebf60f7994cf50dc7268e5197f86b014d7a6 Do your homework-Find the right fertility clinic for you“Ask about the certifications of the doctor and the labs you are planning on getting your IVF done at,look for an IVF center that is being run by a team of experts and not by an individual practitioner.Individually run IVF centers lack transparency and well defined standard operating protocols”-Dr. Shilpa Gupta IVF is an expensive treatment that is demanding both financially and emotionally. You cannot compromise with the quality of treatment which majorly depends on the clinic’s facilities and success rate and the doctor who is going to treat you. Make extensive research for selecting the best doctor and clinic for the treatment Ask about the certification of the doctors and accreditation of the labs,look for the best IVF center near you that is being run by a team of expert rather than an individual. Individually run centers lack transparency and well defined functioning work protocols The center should have a 24X7 available working staff especially a Doctor and an Embryologist, you may come across centers who do not have a full time available staff,The Doctors and Embryologist are available only on call as per requirement which leads to poorly managed operation theater and infrastructure Ask for the expertise of doctors and ensure that the doctor has high conversion rates in IVF and area expertise in the particular field of IVF.Discuss their experience with the women of your age and similar medical and health conditions The center should be well equipped with world class advanced technology,The field of IVF is advancing every day which is ensuring better success rate of the procedure The center should have a protocol to treat each case individually,It has been observed that many IVF center combine many IVF cases all together and perform IVF on all of them at once which results into poor results of all cases,Every case is unique and it needs to be treated individually Evaluating the best IVF center near you is the first step towards successful parenthood https://reddit.com/link/e1g0mh/video/e113vypj2u041/player Don’t wait until it’s too late " The best age for women for a successful IVF treatment is between 20 and 35 years – Dr.Neha Jain” Does my age is going to affect the success of IVF? Well! Yes, it does. Your chances of conceiving and giving birth to a child are closely linked with your age in both natural and IVF pregnancies.The ability to conceive begins to decline at approximately 28 years of age. This has a direct impact on the success of IVF treatment. Aging deteriorates the quality and quantity of eggs which reduces the chances of successful treatment. The data from the Society of assisted reproductive technology (SART) suggests that the chances of live birth in women under 35 are around 47 percent while for women between 80 and 40, it is 38 percent. For the above-mentioned reasons, it is advised to consult the best IVF doctor as soon as you decide to conceive through IVF and your doctor clears you for the procedure. Nutrition and weight balance Taking proper nutrition and maintaining a healthy body weight is essential not only during the treatment but also during the preparation. You should begin self-care a couple of months before the embryo transfer. Your doctor will guide you about the diet. There are also fertility diet programs that improve the health of your reproductive organs and promote the success of the treatments. A balanced diet and adequate nutrition also help in the supply of good quality blood to the uterus. This provides better nutrition to the embryo and helps in its growth. Your male partner should also take up a specific diet to improve the quality and quantity of the sperms. Also, healthy body weight is a boon to the IVF treatment. While being right weight increases the time of conception, excess weight increases the chances of complications and makes monitoring more difficult.To know more about it, it's recommended to talk to an IVF expert. Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D About forty percent of individuals are deficient in Vitamin D, and there are upcoming data on its relation with infertility and poor IVF outcomes.Most commonly vitamin D is produced when your skin is exposed to sunlight. For that reason, most women who are from colder regions or who stay indoors are mostly vitamin D deficiency. Many studies and theories have linked vitamin D with the success of IVF treatment. A woman with vitamin D deficiency is more likely to face pregnancy-induced hypertension, lower birth weight, and gestational diabetes. Ensure that you take ample sunlight and strive for food like fatty fish (tuna, mackerel, salmon), egg yolk, cheese, and other vitamin D fortified food like orange juice, soy milk, and cereals, etc. Gender specific supplements to add in your routine Along with a balanced diet, supplements are also important for the success of IVF treatment. Supplements are a must for both female and male partners. Women need supplements for vitamins A, B, C, and E. Zinc, magnesium, iron, and folic acid provide great help in fertilization and implant processes. These also help in preventing neural tube defects. Women should also take enough fatty acids to keep FSH under control and provide nourishment for eggs. Men should also take antioxidants with these vitamins and supplements. These reduce the chances of sperm damage and ensure normal sperm production, sperm count and motility. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood flow and increases the chances of fertilization. Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health "Malefactor influence nearly two-third of infertility cases.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh Many a time people misunderstood the IVF treatment as a procedure that is done with the female partner only. However, the contribution of the male partner is vital. Almost two-thirds of the couples who choose IVF could not normally conceive due to male infertility. Common problems related to sperm production are about the quantity, movement, and shape. These problems arise usually due to excess of alcohol, tobacco or other drugs, high temperature in a hot bath, and excessive workout. Men should also take a healthy and balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants. Your doctors may also prescribe supplements for your male partner. Maintaining a healthy body weight is also important for treatment. You should do moderate exercise regularly. You should undertake the semen analysis before going for the IVF treatment. This would help you and your doctor to identify and understand the cause of male infertility and take the necessary steps to address these issues and obtain a successful outcome of the treatment.You can get an infertility examination to know where you stand on your fertility journey. Egg donation program “Egg donation can increase the chances of success of IVF treatment by more than 42 percent.” – Dr. Shilpa Gupta Egg donation programs are a boon to the parents who want to take up IVF treatment but are constrained by the budget.The process involves taking high quality fertile and healthy eggs from a female done of age between 21 to 29 years, The donors have to go through a well defined and strict screening process to ensure that the practice gives fruitful results.The donor needs to have a healthy lifestyle,good educational background,right weight and height ratios and willing to undergo all medical and background screening processes.It needs to be ensured that the center you are availing the egg donation program follows guidelines provided by ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) . Egg received from the young female are fertilized with the sperm of the husband and the resulting embryo is then transferred to the womb of the recipient women Travel for IVF “The overall cost of the treatment in India including travel cost is nearly one third of the treatment costs in other countries.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh Should I travel to a different country for IVF treatment? If you are looking for excellent treatment at the minimum possible cost, you should. The cost of IVF treatment is high and is extremely subjective. It depends on your age, fertility history, duration of the marriage and the location. Different countries offer treatment at greatly varying prices. The cost of the treatment in the US is $19,200 whereas it is much lower in other countries. In Malaysia, it is $4,500 and in Thailand, it is $7500. Cost of IVF treatment in India is just ₹51000 which approximately $700,you can get the world-class treatment done. Lesser cost does not always mean poor quality. This variation in cost is based on the cost of living in the country and the burden on the doctors. You also get world-class facilities and internationally trained doctors supporting you 24/7. Clinics also provide support for the visa, travel, and Forex exchange. We provide high-quality treatment with excellent success-rate at the most reasonable pricing. https://preview.redd.it/kj92q2or2u041.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6f7c51e7711418192334a31b002ce2011fc853cd Check your insurance Fertility treatments are not considered medically necessary so insurance companies and they do not usually cover them. But if you have a certain condition like endometriosis, polycystic ovarian disease, etc. that cause infertility, you may be able to get the insurance to pay for the treatment. If you are still unable to get your insurance to cover it, see if your company offers some kind of employee benefit that allows you to use part of your pre-taxed income for medical uses that insurance provider won’t cover. How to pay for IVF procedures Among the top 10 IVF centers in Delhi Baby Joy IVF clinic allows you to pay through various payment options. You can make the payment online which speeds up and simplifies the procedure. We also allow you to pay in installments. Our costing and payment are highly transparent. We provide “World-class Yet Economical” IVF Fertility Treatment in Delhi. Additional Offers Only for This Week on Cost of IVF in Delhi at Baby Joy
Spl. Discounted IVF Packages.
Easy EMIs available; Payment can be made in parts.
Register nw to avail cheap IVF Price, IVF Cost in Delhi & Start treatment later.
Your age, years of marriage & fertility history will help us guide you better on overall IVF Cost, Cost of IVF.
No Hidden Charges; No Expensive Tests; Transparent IVF Pricing.
Customized Packages available.
Money Back Guarantee
https://reddit.com/link/e1g0mh/video/6ojc83vx2u041/player Smoking and Alcohol detox Both smoking and alcohol reduce the success rate of IVF treatment. Smoking in men can lead to low sperm count and poor sperm quality causing miscarriage. Women can also face miscarriage due to smoking as it ages the eggs and depletes the uterus lining. Taking alcohol more than ten units a week also decreases the chances of successful IVF treatment. Relaxation Many studies have proved that stress adversely affects the results of IVF treatment. It messes up with your cycle timing and can reduce sperm count in males. Cortisol and other hormones secreted due to stress interfere with the implantation process. It may also lead to miscarriage. You can opt for activities like light yoga, meditation, spa, etc for relaxation. You should talk to your doctor and your partner about your apprehensions. Consult a professional counselor if needed. Acupuncture Acupuncture is a science that treats various health conditions by putting tiny needles precisely in your body. Presently it is one of the most preferred alternative treatments. Acupuncture is highly effective in managing stress. It enhances the blood flow to the reproductive organs and improves their function. Taking acupuncture sessions for three months before the embryo transfer can dramatically increase the chances of successful treatment. All the couples who are commencing their journey of IVF may initially find it challenging and demanding. Although it is not completely untrue, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic like the baby joy IVF can make it safe and smooth. Our doctors compassionately discuss the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. We provide personalized care to all our patients and provide them both medical and psychological support. Best wishes from Baby Joy If you are commencing their journey of IVF and find it challenging and demanding, you are not alone. Although the fear is not completely unjustified, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic can make it safe and smooth. Find the best IVF doctor who compassionately discusses the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. Personalized care and world-class medical and psychological support can ensure your success through the journey of IVF. We understand, there cannot be a stronger human emotion than the desire ‘to have Your Little One!’ “Baby Joy” is our endeavour to be part of your journey towards parenthood. It is our VISION to set benchmarks in the field of Fertility management globally, through cutting edge technology, most advanced treatment protocols, & a highly acclaimed team of doctors, embryologists & support staff. It is our MISSION to achieve high success rates at lowest cost, through highly customised fertility care, internationally accepted protocols & best global practices. We strongly believe in bringing transparency & honesty to Fertility care in India. We carry out egg donation & surrogacy through our sister concern WSC. This makes Baby Joy a comprehensive Fertility Centre providing 360 degree fertility solutions under 1 roof. We are one of the few recognised professionally run healthcare centres in India. Baby Joy offers comprehensive Infertility, Surrogacy and Test Tube Baby Solutions in India At Baby Joy, we strive to ‘touch your lives’ by helping you ‘create life!’ Hoping to transform your dreams into reality, your desires into accomplishments & your Hope into Joy ! Source URL:- https://www.babyjoyivf.com/13-ways-to-maximise-your-ivf-success-minimise-your-ivf-cost/
13 Ways to Maximise your IVF Success & Minimise your IVF Cost
“Only 30-35% of couples going for IVF get successful in their journey but with the right approach and expertise the success rate can be increased upto two folds”– Dr. Neha Jain The field of IVF has seen tremendous growth in the past few years. India is one of the countries which has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of infertility treatments. According to NARI (National ART Registry of India) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the infertility number has increased significantly. The success rate of the treatment is associated with the age, lifestyle, genetic factors of the conceiving mother and many other factors. According to the CDC (Centre for Disease Control), the success rate varies from 35 to 38 percent.. Lower rates are observed with patients of higher age bracket. One of the factors impacting success is stress. The knowledge and acceptance of infertility take a toll on the couple's mental health. Like any other medical procedure, maintaining the proper health of the couples involved is inevitable to obtain expected results in IVF. It is crucial especially for the mothers conceiving through IVF. The health care should begin as soon as you decide to choose the assisted reproductive technology to get pregnant. Let us discuss measures to increase the chances of a successful IVF treatment and minimize your billing while you are going through the most crucial phase of your life. This blog aims to introduce ways to minimize the treatment costs, reduce stress and maximize the chances of a safe and successful procedure. ivf clinic in delhi So, let’s take a look atHow to Increase Your Chances of IVF Success and minimize your IVF cost Feel free to skip ahead if one topic catches your eye:
Do your homework
Don’t wait until it’s too late
Nutrition and weight balance
Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D
Gender specific supplements to add in your routine
Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health
Egg donation program
Travel for IVF
Check your insurance
How Can You Pay for IVF?
Smoking and Alcohol
https://preview.redd.it/szlz45fdeu041.jpg?width=658&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f44481182f0376e1d2353e1fed601d0ab3182015 Do your homework-Find the right fertility clinic for you“Ask about the certifications of the doctor and the labs you are planning on getting your IVF done at,look for an IVF center that is being run by a team of experts and not by an individual practitioner.Individually run IVF centers lack transparency and well defined standard operating protocols”-Dr. Shilpa Gupta IVF is an expensive treatment that is demanding both financially and emotionally. You cannot compromise with the quality of treatment which majorly depends on the clinic’s facilities and success rate and the doctor who is going to treat you. Make extensive research for selecting the best doctor and clinic for the treatment Ask about the certification of the doctors and accreditation of the labs,look for the best IVF center near you that is being run by a team of expert rather than an individual. Individually run centers lack transparency and well defined functioning work protocols The center should have a 24X7 available working staff especially a Doctor and an Embryologist, you may come across centers who do not have a full time available staff,The Doctors and Embryologist are available only on call as per requirement which leads to poorly managed operation theater and infrastructure Ask for the expertise of doctors and ensure that the doctor has high conversion rates in IVF and area expertise in the particular field of IVF.Discuss their experience with the women of your age and similar medical and health conditions The center should be well equipped with world class advanced technology,The field of IVF is advancing every day which is ensuring better success rate of the procedure The center should have a protocol to treat each case individually,It has been observed that many IVF center combine many IVF cases all together and perform IVF on all of them at once which results into poor results of all cases,Every case is unique and it needs to be treated individually Evaluating the best IVF center near you is the first step towards successful parenthood Watch - 5 Most important things to consider while selecting an IVF centre Don’t wait until it’s too late " The best age for women for a successful IVF treatment is between 20 and 35 years – Dr.Neha Jain” Does my age is going to affect the success of IVF? Well! Yes, it does. Your chances of conceiving and giving birth to a child are closely linked with your age in both natural and IVF pregnancies.The ability to conceive begins to decline at approximately 28 years of age. This has a direct impact on the success of IVF treatment. Aging deteriorates the quality and quantity of eggs which reduces the chances of successful treatment. The data from the Society of assisted reproductive technology (SART) suggests that the chances of live birth in women under 35 are around 47 percent while for women between 80 and 40, it is 38 percent. For the above-mentioned reasons, it is advised to consult the best IVF doctor as soon as you decide to conceive through IVF and your doctor clears you for the procedure. Nutrition and weight balance Taking proper nutrition and maintaining a healthy body weight is essential not only during the treatment but also during the preparation. You should begin self-care a couple of months before the embryo transfer. Your doctor will guide you about the diet. There are also fertility diet programs that improve the health of your reproductive organs and promote the success of the treatments. A balanced diet and adequate nutrition also help in the supply of good quality blood to the uterus. This provides better nutrition to the embryo and helps in its growth. Your male partner should also take up a specific diet to improve the quality and quantity of the sperms. Also, healthy body weight is a boon to the IVF treatment. While being right weight increases the time of conception, excess weight increases the chances of complications and makes monitoring more difficult.To know more about it, it's recommended to talk to an IVF expert. Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D About forty percent of individuals are deficient in Vitamin D, and there are upcoming data on its relation with infertility and poor IVF outcomes.Most commonly vitamin D is produced when your skin is exposed to sunlight. For that reason, most women who are from colder regions or who stay indoors are mostly vitamin D deficiency. Many studies and theories have linked vitamin D with the success of IVF treatment. A woman with vitamin D deficiency is more likely to face pregnancy-induced hypertension, lower birth weight, and gestational diabetes. Ensure that you take ample sunlight and strive for food like fatty fish (tuna, mackerel, salmon), egg yolk, cheese, and other vitamin D fortified food like orange juice, soy milk, and cereals, etc. Gender specific supplements to add in your routine Along with a balanced diet, supplements are also important for the success of IVF treatment. Supplements are a must for both female and male partners. Women need supplements for vitamins A, B, C, and E. Zinc, magnesium, iron, and folic acid provide great help in fertilization and implant processes. These also help in preventing neural tube defects. Women should also take enough fatty acids to keep FSH under control and provide nourishment for eggs. Men should also take antioxidants with these vitamins and supplements. These reduce the chances of sperm damage and ensure normal sperm production, sperm count and motility. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood flow and increases the chances of fertilization. Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health "Malefactor influence nearly two-third of infertility cases.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh Many a time people misunderstood the IVF treatment as a procedure that is done with the female partner only. However, the contribution of the male partner is vital. Almost two-thirds of the couples who choose IVF could not normally conceive due to male infertility. Common problems related to sperm production are about the quantity, movement, and shape. These problems arise usually due to excess of alcohol, tobacco or other drugs, high temperature in a hot bath, and excessive workout. Men should also take a healthy and balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants. Your doctors may also prescribe supplements for your male partner. Maintaining a healthy body weight is also important for treatment. You should do moderate exercise regularly. You should undertake the semen analysis before going for the IVF treatment. This would help you and your doctor to identify and understand the cause of male infertility and take the necessary steps to address these issues and obtain a successful outcome of the treatment.You can get an infertility examination to know where you stand on your fertility journey. Egg donation program “Egg donation can increase the chances of success of IVF treatment by more than 42 percent.” – Dr. Shilpa Gupta Egg donation programs are a boon to the parents who want to take up IVF treatment but are constrained by the budget.The process involves taking high quality fertile and healthy eggs from a female done of age between 21 to 29 years, The donors have to go through a well defined and strict screening process to ensure that the practice gives fruitful results.The donor needs to have a healthy lifestyle,good educational background,right weight and height ratios and willing to undergo all medical and background screening processes.It needs to be ensured that the center you are availing the egg donation program follows guidelines provided by ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) . Egg received from the young female are fertilized with the sperm of the husband and the resulting embryo is then transferred to the womb of the recipient women Travel for IVF “The overall cost of the treatment in India including travel cost is nearly one third of the treatment costs in other countries.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh Should I travel to a different country for IVF treatment? If you are looking for excellent treatment at the minimum possible cost, you should. The cost of IVF treatment is high and is extremely subjective. It depends on your age, fertility history, duration of the marriage and the location. Different countries offer treatment at greatly varying prices. The cost of the treatment in the US is $19,200 whereas it is much lower in other countries. In Malaysia, it is $4,500 and in Thailand, it is $7500. Cost of IVF treatment in India is just ₹51000 which approximately $700,you can get the world-class treatment done. Lesser cost does not always mean poor quality. This variation in cost is based on the cost of living in the country and the burden on the doctors. You also get world-class facilities and internationally trained doctors supporting you 24/7. Clinics also provide support for the visa, travel, and Forex exchange. We provide high-quality treatment with excellent success-rate at the most reasonable pricing. ivf clinic in india Check your insurance Fertility treatments are not considered medically necessary so insurance companies and they do not usually cover them. But if you have a certain condition like endometriosis, polycystic ovarian disease, etc. that cause infertility, you may be able to get the insurance to pay for the treatment. If you are still unable to get your insurance to cover it, see if your company offers some kind of employee benefit that allows you to use part of your pre-taxed income for medical uses that insurance provider won’t cover. How to pay for IVF procedures Among the top 10 IVF centers in Delhi Baby Joy IVF clinic allows you to pay through various payment options. You can make the payment online which speeds up and simplifies the procedure. We also allow you to pay in installments. Our costing and payment are highly transparent. We provide “World-class Yet Economical” IVF Fertility Treatment in Delhi. Additional Offers Only for This Week on Cost of IVF in Delhi at Baby Joy
Spl. Discounted IVF Packages.
Easy EMIs available; Payment can be made in parts.
Register nw to avail cheap IVF Price, IVF Cost in Delhi & Start treatment later.
Your age, years of marriage & fertility history will help us guide you better on overall IVF Cost, Cost of IVF.
No Hidden Charges; No Expensive Tests; Transparent IVF Pricing.
Watch - How to select an IVF centre Smoking and Alcohol detox Both smoking and alcohol reduce the success rate of IVF treatment. Smoking in men can lead to low sperm count and poor sperm quality causing miscarriage. Women can also face miscarriage due to smoking as it ages the eggs and depletes the uterus lining. Taking alcohol more than ten units a week also decreases the chances of successful IVF treatment. Relaxation Many studies have proved that stress adversely affects the results of IVF treatment. It messes up with your cycle timing and can reduce sperm count in males. Cortisol and other hormones secreted due to stress interfere with the implantation process. It may also lead to miscarriage. You can opt for activities like light yoga, meditation, spa, etc for relaxation. You should talk to your doctor and your partner about your apprehensions. Consult a professional counselor if needed. Acupuncture Acupuncture is a science that treats various health conditions by putting tiny needles precisely in your body. Presently it is one of the most preferred alternative treatments. Acupuncture is highly effective in managing stress. It enhances the blood flow to the reproductive organs and improves their function. Taking acupuncture sessions for three months before the embryo transfer can dramatically increase the chances of successful treatment. All the couples who are commencing their journey of IVF may initially find it challenging and demanding. Although it is not completely untrue, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic like the baby joy IVF can make it safe and smooth. Our doctors compassionately discuss the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. We provide personalized care to all our patients and provide them both medical and psychological support. Best wishes from Baby Joy If you are commencing their journey of IVF and find it challenging and demanding, you are not alone. Although the fear is not completely unjustified, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic can make it safe and smooth. Find the best IVF doctor who compassionately discusses the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. Personalized care and world-class medical and psychological support can ensure your success through the journey of IVF. We understand, there cannot be a stronger human emotion than the desire ‘to have Your Little One!’ “Baby Joy” is our endeavour to be part of your journey towards parenthood. It is our VISION to set benchmarks in the field of Fertility management globally, through cutting edge technology, most advanced treatment protocols, & a highly acclaimed team of doctors, embryologists & support staff. It is our MISSION to achieve high success rates at lowest cost, through highly customised fertility care, internationally accepted protocols & best global practices. We strongly believe in bringing transparency & honesty to Fertility care in India. We carry out egg donation & surrogacy through our sister concern WSC. This makes Baby Joy a comprehensive Fertility Centre providing 360 degree fertility solutions under 1 roof. We are one of the few recognised professionally run healthcare centres in India. Baby Joy offers comprehensive Infertility, Surrogacy and Test Tube Baby Solutions in India At Baby Joy, we strive to ‘touch your lives’ by helping you ‘create life!’ Hoping to transform your dreams into reality, your desires into accomplishments & your Hope into Joy ! Source URL:- https://www.babyjoyivf.com/13-ways-to-maximise-your-ivf-success-minimise-your-ivf-cost/
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NRIs / People earning in foreign Currencies : Do you try to time your transfers and investments in India to get a better exchange rate?
Is it worthwhile or useful to try to time the forex market and wait for better exchange rates when transferring money ( say a lump-sum of >10L INR ) and investing in India?
How reliable are these currency exchange rate prediction websites
Why do I ask? I am a newbie at Investments ( took a intro to finance and economics course in college but theory is very different from real world ) and recently moved to Europe. I had thought of transferring my savings and starting to invest last year when the exchange rate was 10% higher than what it is today but couldn't do so then because I did not have an NRE account. Now that I have the account I am confused whether to do it now or 'wait' for better prices. I realise anchoring bias , analysis paralysis is at work here so want to get the wisdom of the crowds before I make a decision.
11-04 14:33 - 'DIFFERENCE BETWEEN KRATSCOIN AND BITCOIN' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/xia112 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 3-13min
''' • The indivisible minimum KRATSCOIN unit is 0.00001 instead of 0.00000001 to denominate realistic currency rates in FOREX. Denomination cannot be determined or dictated by the value of a currency. If KRATSCOIN is valued at USD10,000.00 then the smallest unit of KRATSCOIN at 0.00001 = USD0.10 and nothing smaller than USD0.10 in KRATSCOIN. Example: If USD1.00 = THB30.00 and the smallest denomination of USD is USD0.10, then a USD0.10 which is THB3.00, is unable to buy a piece of candy at THB1.00. Thus the USD must be converted into a smaller currency of THB in order to buy the THB1.00 candy. • KRATSCOIN is in-line with standard International Foreign Currency Exchange Practice at indivisible minimum unit 0.00001. • Each KRATSCOIN is equipped with a 13 digit “SERIAL CODES AND NUMBERS” and there will be a total of 2,100,000,000,000 SERIAL CODES in total. Example1: 1st KRATSCOIN = AKDJFYRS.00000 Example2: 1st Fraction from 1st KRATSCOIN = AKDJFYRS.00001 Example3: 2nd Fraction from 2nd KRATSCOIN = AKDJFYRS.00002 Example4: Last KRATSCOIN = DLXVZKWR.00000 Example5: 1st Fraction from Last KRATSCOIN = DLXVZKWR.00001 Example6: 2nd Fraction from Last KRATSCOIN = DLXVZKWR.00002 • In Year 2015, Silk Road in DeepWeb utilization of Bitcoin in their transactions amounts to USD1.2billion spanning over 950,000 users. One may argue that Bitcoin is most utilized by the black market, which then maintains its value and worth among other factors. However, the USD1.2bil a year over 950,000 users are far fetch from the Legitimate Users in comparison. Bitcoin transactions runs into USD40.0bil in recent Legitimate Crypto Exchanges. In summary, legitimate transaction of crypto currencies is many times larger use in illegal transactions. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FIAT AND CRYPTO: • Fiat Currency is backed by Governments/Countries itself. What determines the value of a currency is the economic health, demand, growth, political stability to name a few, of the respective country. Before 1930, most fiat currencies were backed by gold and silver. • Since 1971, U.S. citizens have been able to utilize Federal Reserve Notes as the only form of money that for the first time had no currency with any gold or silver backing. This is where you get the saying that U.S. dollars are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. Government - quoted in google.com. • What backs crypto value is purely supply and demand. The demand creation of a crypto is its sole objective. To create demand, the crypto has to have a purpose. And most purpose commonly promoted is utility. The number of ways you can utilize the said crypto. The more utilization factors the more demand there is for it. • There are other ways to substantiate value of a crypto and that is to back the crypto with a 1 to 1 ratio in assets or in USD. Then the question is, how 3,000 crypto currencies in circulation be monetary eco sustainable? Can anyone imagine walking into McDonald and view a chart of 3,000 different pricing? Which also means the crypto is a payment gateway pegging against USD instead of bearing any true characteristic of a currency. • A country’s currency is in its own legit form of legal tender, the only currency acceptable under financial sovereigns of a country. People in the world must be made to understand that. Retailers in Thailand cannot put up products price tags in EUROS/USD, it is illegal. It has to be in Thai Baht. • It is hardly imaginable for everyone in the world to retail with a Crypto-Currencies at a rate of 7 transactions per second. When mining nodes are reduced due to non-performing mining ratio, mining blocks in the Blockchain will significantly be limited too, rendering delays in transactions while usage increases. • In time to come, as trends of crypto picks up, Thailand can issue BAHT COIN or UK the STERLING COIN, exactly what China wishes to do. Digital RMB, but would such crypto currencies be fully decentralized? We all have our answers. Absurd to even think of producing Thai Baht, Pound Sterling or Chinese Yuan at the cost of electricity. It is currencies in digital forms. KRATSCOIN is not meant for that purpose. In some opinion, apart from utilization, a crypto can be for safekeeping, an entity for keeping money while allowing easy liquidation, at a click of a mobile button, not to mention sending or transferring without the trouble of going to banks, which was the original purpose of Bitcoin to begin with. Therefore, KRATSCOIN would be better termed as Crypto Commodity, sharing similarities as Metal Commodities. An individual cannot use gold to make a purchase, neither can one eat gold. It can only be kept or invest in for appreciative value over time. Gold is being exampled for its scarcity which reasons for its higher value over its cousin, silver or bronze. Who or what determines the value of gold? Just like any other crypto, demand by humanity. As in all other commodities, it must also be placed in checks by governments. To put in checks, serial numbers are introduced to protect a country’s commodities outflows or illegal exports. Humanity made Bitcoin a reality. Acceptance by the majority members of the public made Bitcoin to what is it today with the trust they entrusted it with, or is the majority public hopping on the band wagon to make a few quick extra bucks? Whatever the reasons are, the characteristics of Crypto Currencies are only matched by the behavior of Commodities. SERIALIZED COINS - WHAT IT MEANS FOR THE PUBLIC: Every currency has its own remarkable name, design and colors. Dollars, Euros, Pound, Tugrik, Peso, Rupee, Rupiah, Dina, Ringgit, Baht and the list carries on. One thing every currency have in common - Serial Numbers. In any crime, investigators will firstly establish motives and mode of operation, both of which are very likely related to money. So following the money trial is a natural thing to do for investigators/authorities and it has become a common practice. Crimes require funding ie robbers need money to buy guns to carry out its robbing activities. Cutting off financing will reduce criminal activities. That’s the approach governments of the WORLD have adopted for crime fighting. Perhaps people do not realize this while most do not feel the pinch. Humanity tends to take life for granted until apocalypse happens. Take a minute to visualize the tallest tower in your homeland collapse into a pile of dust with thousands of casualties effecting everything else that comes to mind. Imagine a family member, just 1 is enough, is among those casualties. • Imagine if monetary system is not in place and drug dealers, among many, roam the earth freely distributing what can be death threatening substance to your kids. What if you are mugged of your inheritance [items left to you by your father] that is beyond retrieval? As for crypto enthusiast, what if your wallet gets hacked as even the mighty Pentagon gets hacked. All the above can go away if the crypto system leaves a trail for hound dogs to sniff out. Money Trail or Serial Codes Trail to be exact. • Citizens rely on governments and their countries to do what is best for them to lead their daily lives, flourish, advance, improve and strive but at the same time, citizens want to take away the single most important thing deemed crucial in the hierarchy of humanity from governments with additional boastful remarks such as “I transferred $400 million from one corner of the earth to another corner in a single transaction and no governments can do anything about it”. • In-short, to boast unregulated financial movement is to arrogantly promote crime without realizing it while challenging the world’s monetary authority. Oldest advice in the book teaches us never to pick a fight we can’t win. • Serial Coded Coins does not take away the financial movement freedom nor does it take away your privacy. It merely provides Authorities the necessary means needed for crime prevention and fighting. It only re-inforce security and safety. SERIALIZED COINS - WHAT IT MEANS FOR GOVERNMENTS: • Governments are relentlessly trying to find new ways to keep track of crypto transactions. Crypto Currency Exchanges, just like all other Financial Institutions and Banks, are required to practice the most stringent Know Your Customer (widely known as KYC) process. The KYC is designed to provide governing agencies and authorities with information pertaining to crypto ownerships. • But no governments can have information on Peer-to-Peer (also known as P2P) transactions unless the government in question launch a full scale Federal Investigation on certain suspected individuals seeking Wallet Developers to unveil the ownership of certain wallet addresses. Do not forget, National and Global Security trumps Privacy Act. Refusal to co-operate under the pretext of Global or National Security will only result in an out-right ban, which is exactly what happened to Blackberry. • Questions to Governments – What if Wallet Developers or Crypto Exchanges shuts down which can happen for various reasons be it foul-play, sinister or forcefully under threat? What if servers are damaged and ruined? An EMP strike or a simple magnet can make it happen. Information/identities of suspected customers of such addresses shall be lost forever and along with it the Money Trial. • The most probable way of evading Authorities with crypto assets are developing an e-wallet for own illicit purpose. Since the cost of developing an e-wallet is relatively low in considerable cost to hiding, what can governments do to flush out these ants from the vast networks of tunnels? • With Serialized Coded Crypto Assets, it doesn’t matter if servers of Exchanges or Wallets are destroyed. The Serial Codes of each token/coin enables governments of every participating country to track both origin and destination by identifying records of each token/coin in wallet address. It can disappear into a cold wallet but emerging some place later yet Authorities can still detail which particular token/coin has at one moment of time been into which wallet, on what day and date. • If the battle of financial crimes can be resolved with a simple Serialize Coded Crypto Asset, the eradication of corruptions, money laundering, unlawful proceeds and terrorism financing will be made possible. Criminals can no longer exploit the genius creation of Sathoshi – Blockchain and Crypto-Currencies. • Global Security, Anti-Terrorism Financing and Money Laundering could just be excuses granting government agencies the need to have access to financial information in the Monetary System. Nonetheless, it is in the interest of every nation that capital outflow is controlled. Capital Outflow is most frequent when the economy of a country is deteriorating. In the face of an economy meltdown, monetary flow is most needed and yet citizens tend to transfer monies further away illegally from their own country in an act of selfishness. This would not be tolerated by any country. Serial Coded Coin shall prove this attempt futile. • In most part of Asian Countries, many crypto-currency mining operations are carried out illegally. The legality sits on thin fine line where Authorities can pin only stealing of electricity as a major concern to the respective country. Since most Power Companies belongs to the Country in one way or another, it is financially damaging to Power Producers and Utility Suppliers. Serial Codes can determine if the KRATSCOIN is mined legally or illegally making it difficult for miners or mining farms to mine crypto while avoiding making electricity payments. Will this deterrent disrupt the chain of KRATSCOIN supply? That’s not how Blockchain Tech works. TAXATIONS - WHAT IT MEANS FOR PUBLIC AND GOVERNMENTS: • Taxation cannot be imposed on “Illegal & Unlawful Proceeds” instead confiscation is enforced in many countries. Origins or proceeds of Serialized Coded Crypto Assets can be easily identified by the Serial Codes in-conjunction with the Blockchain. This exercise can evidently proof the legitimacy of the aforesaid token/coin. By “Illegal & Unlawful Proceeds” also refers to crypto coins obtained via illegal mining operations. • Taxation on Crypto Assets are calculated on profits deriving from the sale/disposal of the crypto Assets. If we are small crypto believers, the amount of taxation rendered by Inland Revenue will be insignificant. Why risk Freedom of Life over Freedom of Small Monies. If we are big crypto believers, taxation on Serialized Coded Coins can be considered added security to your assets protection. • By adopting Serialized Crypto Assets, declaration is made easily possible via proof of token/coin origin via the Blockchain. If the Authorities can know where our crypto assets come from, the Authorities will know where it will disappear to. It is taxation cum insurance in one tiny sum. This added security with freedom feature will encourage self-declarations of crypto assets to Authorities and Agencies. PRIVACY & ANONIMITY: • Many may be skeptical of their wealth being tracked and monitored. But in this era of technological advance society, everything we touches has our signature. Banks, iPhones, Samsung Mobiles, Google, Facebook, Whatsapp, WeChat, LINE, Viber, Facebook, Properties, Utilities. Almost everything. It is to this fact that there is a need for Privacy Protection Act. • As explained before, Crypto Currency Exchange KYC procedures is designed to expose the identity of Crypto Assets ownership. The Blockchain is supposed to serve as a transparent information platform. The question of privacy over Serialized Coded Coins does not exist, it does not make Serialized Coded Coins ownership any less private. • Ownership of wallet addresses shall always remain anonymous while the only way Authorities can get to it is through Wallet Developers by virtue of Global/National Security Threats or by a Court Order as per the Privacy Protection Act. SAFETY & SECURITY (CODED CRYPTO VS FIAT + COMMODITIES): • No human mind can memorize the millions of serial numbers printed on fiat currencies. The records of Serialized Coded Coins will forever be in the Blockchain embedded within each transaction from wallet to wallet. • Serialized Commodities such as gold can be melted down. Diamonds recrafted. Fiat double printed. But not Serialized Coded Crypto Assets. • Should an accessory system be added into the KRATSCOIN Blockchain, allowing reports on criminal activity be made within the Blockchain, notifying all ledgers of certain stolen Serial Coded Coins, enabling WARNINGS and forbidding next transaction of that particular Serial Coded Coin, wouldn’t this function enhance protection. A theft deterrent function which can never be achieved with physical gold, diamonds or fiat. KRATSCOIN SUMMARY: • Most crypto currencies have not reach a level of security alert for governments. This could be the only reason why a possible ban has not been discussed. China and India has begun efforts to control or ban crypto currencies in their quest to combat capital outflow, writer’s personal opinion. The EU has stopped Libra from implementation. “A company cannot be allowed Authoring Power for issuance of currencies” quoted the governments. KRATSCOIN is fully decentralized with no ownership nor control by any country, company or individual. Once again, the beauty of Bitcoin decentralization concept prevails. • “There is no such thing as a world currency. However, since World War II, the dominant or reserve currency of the world has been the U.S. dollar” quoted in google.com. • Most countries have “Foreign Reserves” as backing to a country’s fiat currency. It is a mean of “back up” attempt should all factors above mentioned leading to the value of their currencies collapse. Then what will happen if the Country of the Foreign Reserves collapse? • Serial Coded KRATSCOIN belongs to no one, no country, no company and therefore theoretically shall not be effected by politics, war or global economy meltdown yet everyone, every country and every government is able to benefit from KRATSCOIN. "Quoted by" [[link]6 [[link]7 [[link]8 [[link]9 [[link]10 ''' DIFFERENCE BETWEEN KRATSCOIN AND BITCOIN Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: xia112 1: lintangnews.c*m/ada*kr**s*o*n-*ni-be*a*ya-d*ngan-bi***in* 2: 0xzx**o***019101*124431*902.*tml 3: ne*s.*oko**y*to.com/*ag/**atsco*n-kt*/ 4: bbs.**anya.cn/p**t-l*ok*u*-836*0*-*.shtml 5: z*uanlan.z*i*u.*om*p/*4*44615 6: l*nta*g*ews.*o*/ada*kr*ts*o*n-*ni-***a*ya-d*ngan-bitcoin/]^^1 7: 0x*x*com/2019101**24*312*02*ht**]^^2 8: news*t**ocr*p*o***m/tag/kr*tscoin-ktc/]*^3 9: bbs.*i*n*a.cn/p**t-loo*ou*-8*61*5-1.sht*l*^^4 10: zhuanl*n.zh*hu.co*/**84**461*]^^5 Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
Best Foreign Currency Exchange in Belgaum-Orient Exchange
The best way to buy foreign currency online Belgaum
So, you are interested to buy foreign currency online. That’s the reason you are here to read further about it, so that you can make an informed decision. Before we delve further into learning what are the options for you to buy foreign currency, just remember that we are Orient Exchange and we are renowned in the business as an RBI recognized money changers (under category II). Where can I buy foreign currency Online? If you are here to buy foreign currency for your personal use, you need to be clear on certain things. What’s the need at hand? Why do you require foreign currency? Based on the requirement, we will be able to suggest you the best mode of exchange. Any which way, if you are looking to get foreign currency the most prudent method will be to get in exchange of the domestic currency you presently possess. Now you need to know which currency you are focusing on, and in which mode you want the currency to be: for example, Thai Bhat is a famous offering of us, but people prefer to have Thai Bhat as physical currency since it is accepted in many countries. However, if you are keen to get currencies like Yen and Canadian Dollar, their acceptance is pretty much guaranteed via Forex Cards and online transfers as well. What is the best website to buy foreign currency online? Orient Exchange Belgaum is the best site for you to buy foreign currency online, it’s not because of the cutting edge tech that’s been employed to give you the most updated rates in the market; instead, it’s because we are designed in a way to give you the best rates in the market for you. We have more than twenty currencies available for you at the fingertips. And, to add on to the number of currencies we have, we are renowned for your dedicated customer support, renowned outward remittance and widely accepted Forex travel card. So, if you are to begin a relationship with a foreign currency exchanger, you will benefit a lot by going with us – as we promise to give tailored and dedicated service in the foreign currency market. Check the daily rates for your convenience here How to get foreign currency in India All you need to get foreign currency is to create an account with us and provide us with the basic necessary information (FEMA compliance) so that we can process your request as fast as possible. When you successfully create an account with us, we will help you pick from the number of offerings we have in terms of foreign currency. We will be able to give you cash in the requested foreign currency or in the form of a Forex travel card, so that you can use it as per the requirement. Just remember that it is a hassle-free and completely legal process, where we even offer to provide services that extend beyond exchanges, support on forex cards and outward remittance are a certain few to name. Make sure to go with a recognised and established organisation like Orient Exchange for your foreign currency needs.
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Central Secretariat is an administrative hub in Delhi. It is also a centre for commerce in the city. Since it is situated very close to the city centre, it has many commercial businesses. Money exchange services in Delhi is very popular and there are many companies which offer this service. If you don’t know which company to go for, then choosing one can be difficult. But Orient Exchange has the perfect solution for you. As a leading online financial transfer service, Orient Exchange has a premier reputation for being the best. We operate all over the country and help our clients find reliable money exchange services. Naturally, we have our presence in all major Indian metropolitans’ cities including Delhi. If you want to find the best money exchanger inDelhi, then we are the place to look. Here’s why:
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NOTE: I did not write this article below. I simply copy and pasted the article. Please click the following link to view the entire article. The article includes charts and images which were not transferred to the text below. https://steemit.com/cryptocurrency/@lennartbedrage/the-ripple-xrp-effect-fundamental-analysis The Ripple(XRP) Effect - Fundamental Analysis: lennartbedrage44 in cryptocurrency ripple.jpg Lately, there’s been a tremendous amount of buzz around Ripple(XRP), but is it only because of the massive growth we’ve seen in the past few 30 days, or is there something more? In this article, I’ll dive into a brief back ground of Ripple, objectively examine the arguments for and against it, explore its potential from a economic standpoint, then close with potential threats to your investment and a summary. Meet Ripple(XRP)- Released in 2012, Ripple aims to enable “secure, instant and nearly free global financial transactions of any size with no chargebacks” through their real-time gross settlement system (RTGS) and currency exchange and remittance network. Ripples distributed open-source internet protocol consensus ledger was created as basic technology for interbank and regulated financial institutions to integrate Ripple into their own systems. This differs from the Bitcoin full node and other crowdsourced altcoin consensus networks in several ways: Ripples common shared ledger is a network of independent validating servers which compare their transaction records, rather than the full network of nodes coming to consensus prior to each transaction, enabling faster transaction speeds. Although their protocol is open source, it was not created as a plug & play solution, like bitcoins full-node software, nor does it rely on crowd-sourced support. Unlike Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, and other Alt-coins, Ripple is recognized as legal tender by several governments, which gives it instant liquidity via financial institution, as well as purchasing power over material goods. Because of this, it cannot be evaluated in the same ways as other coins, which are largely evaluated based on assumptions & speculation. In terms of value, it’s more like cash than a commodity. Because of this, it is evaluated in a much different way than Ethereum(ETH) and other alt-coins with intrinsic value, but is accepted much more rapidly because it’s easy for the mass-market to understand. Remember: without market acceptance, there is not value, regardless of how innovative something may be. Just 4 short years after its release, on 01MAY17, Ripple announced that a consortium of 47 banks have successfully completed a pilot implementation of Ripple in Japan, making it the first country in the world to enable domestic and international real time money transfers via the cryptocurrency. This event lead the XRP value to sky-rocket from $0.051580 USD to an all-time high of $0.430085 in just 16 days… but why? Is it 100% speculation, or is there something else going on here? “It’s not a real cryptocurrency!” Or is it? Well, those whom bring this argument to the table are probably referencing facts that I’ve mention during my introduction to Ripple: Its a centralized and regulated crypto-currency which does not need global consensus for transfers, and it is built specifically for (and potentially by) financial institutions. Though a lot of the Anarcho-Capitalists may want to steer clear of this one due to its highly regulated nature, regular capitalist may believe these core differences to be its greatest strengths: Regulated - As I mentioned in my analysis on Ethereum(ETH), Bitcoin’s lack of regulation was likely he reason (or at least, that’s what they told us) that the proposed ETF failed to pass the SEC’s evaluation several months ago. If adhering to some sort of trusted regulatory standards, this could drive federal confidence, which in turn drive bank and lending institution faith…trickling all the way down to the consumers. This insures rapid mass market acceptance. Consensus - As mentioned before this is much different process than Bitcoin’s global consensus, which means that transaction times are nearly instant regardless of volume transferred. Additionally, all transfers adhere to distributive ledgers DLT standards, which is a requirement for many financial institutions to be insurable. Institutional Management - You’ve probably guessed this one already. Although the demand and speculative value is driven at some capacity by ‘the people’, this currency is about as close to the World bank and SWIFT as you can get. This is largely due to the amount Deliberate - It feels like a big bank, because it is. Ripple was built specifically for the financial markets, which is why they specifically targeted regulatory compliance. shutterstock_289877267_long_read_cover_large.jpg Economic Value As mentioned in the last point, Its easy to see that Ripple offers tremendous value to financial-institutions and retail investors. These two groups make up 358 billion (numbers from 2013) non-cash cross-country annual transactions, and the FOREX market which sees more than $5.1 trillion $USD each day. Per a report released by Capgemini and The Royal Bank of Scotland, this is growing at an average rate of about 7.5% each year globally, though China and other Emerging Asian economies have been leading the charge at around 21%. Seems like a lot, right? Well, for sake of uncovering the immediate value of XRP, we will zoom into the recent adopters of the distributed ledger technology: Japan, India, and the Central Europe, Middle East & Africa(CEMEA) regions. Japan.jpg Japan is the third largest economy in the world by nominal GDP ($6.11 trillion), fourth by purchasing power parity(PPP) and second largest developed economy. Currently, their GDP per capita is roughly $48,412 (vs $56,430 in US) and their major trade partners include the US, China, Hong Kong, Australia and South Korea. Japan GDP.png Aside from the speculation that they maybe soon pressure their trade partners (excluding the US and China) to adopt a system which allows for instant, near free transfers of funds, here’s where it gets interesting for the immediate future: Japan has already started accepting Ripple(XRP) as legal tender. If Ripple raises to just 25% of the overall transaction volume of P2P, P2B & B2B within Japan itself (represented in the chart by Other Services, Real Estate, Retail, Transport, Communications, Finance & Utilities) which is equal to about 20% of their overall economy, Ripple would be handling roughly $1.27 trillion USD in Japan – alone - every year. To put that in perspective, the current (at the time of writing) market capitalization of Bitcoin(BTC) is $30.7 billion USD (or >0.4%). Unlike Bitcoin, Ripple is legal tender which means that it can be exchanged for material goods and services, which means that it’s likely to have explosive acceptance in the local area. India.jpg India-based Axis Bank announced in April that they will soon begin leveraging distributed ledger tech for cross-border transactions and to make banking simple and convenient for their customers. About 15 days’ prior, another large financial institution, Yes Bank, also announced that they would be adopting Ripples ledger for the same reasons. If Ripple continues to grow in acceptance at this rate in India, we could see another economy, roughly 1/3 the size of Japan’s ($2.074 trillion USD) add to Ripples annual transaction value. Now, from an economic stand point, this is most interesting because agriculture represents more than 50% of India’s employment, which means that India would be the 2nd case of consumer trading Ripple for staple foods. India GDP.png It is likely that Ripple will not handle as large of a percentage of overall transaction volumes in India because only two major banks have adopted this currency and it is not the only Crypto. The latter is probably one of the most important variables, as this means that Ripple will be duking it out for market dominancy. As all of my projections are fairly conservative, I would estimate that Ripple will handle roughly 10% of India’s over all transaction volume in the next 365 days, equal to roughly $311.1 billion USD. One last thing that I would like to mention is that India is literally the ‘I’ in BRIC and roughly 13% of the BRIC countries total output. If the BRIC comes to fruition, India may be able to convince it’s other close trade partners to jump on the XRP-Train as well. Dubai.jpg Abu Dhabi Bank, the National and largest bank of the UAE, has already begun offering cross-border transaction services with Ripples distributive ledger technology as well. As they deal extensively with their middle eastern neighbors, such as Saudi Arabia, and Qatar, the UAE is likely to set a trend for other CEMEA countries to follow. UAE GDP.png This might be a surprise to some people, but Dubai’s largest industry is the energy sector (shocker!) followed closely by Real Estate and their Finance industry (double shocker!). Although their GPD is much smaller than Japan and India’s (about $370 billion USD), I am anticipating Ripple to handle a larger percent of the UAE’s transaction volume (31.11%), especially in the finance, Real Estate, Retail and Logistics industries. This is due largely to the fact that their population is only roughly 9.157 million, but most Abu Dhabi nationals are very financially inclined (or at least heavy spenders). Potential Threats As this threatens SWIFT (unless they are completely on board) and the US dollars’ supremacy in the economic & financial markets, I would not be surprised to see a false flag attack, in which the NSA attacks Ripple and blames it on North Korea or China. Frankly, this would be a cake walk compared to Stuxnet or WannaCry and they could probably hand the task to an MIT intern. Where semi-centralization is Ripples strength in terms of transaction speed and regulation, it is also the biggest security flaw and may open it’s user to some heart ache, hair loss and heavy drinking over the next several years. Possibility So, what is possible in terms of value over the next few years? Well, if we consider the following scenario: XRP accounts for roughly 20% of Japan, India full GDP, but 31.1% UAE’s GDP ($7.152 Trillion USD) total exchange volume in the next 2 years Max XRP Supply stays at 100 billion No other countries adopt XRP (not likely) No hacks or other catastrophic events remove confidence Exclude speculation, demand, rallies, and GDP growth projections for each country Then we’re looking at each Ripple(XRP) market capitalization over ~$1.75 Trillion USD, making each coin $17.52 in real value. This means that if you were to invest today at $0.362794, your ROI would be about 4,989%. That said, I think that it’s likely it will go over $30 in the next 2 years, due to speculators flooding the markets and other countries signing up. Again, these are conservative numbers are based on total transaction value in USD equivalent. For those whom subscribe, I will update as new variables are available to my appraisal Bottom Line Although it was most definitely created by an insider of the banking industry and does not ‘feel like a crypto’, I personally feel that due to its rapid market acceptance, liquidity and position as legal tender in 3 large economies, Ripple(XRP) is both primed for explosive growth in the near future and likely to be one of the safest value based Crypto-investments we can make today. Another thing, China is the anchor of the West Pacific, so we should all watch their evaluation of Ripple, very closely. If they were to jump on the XRP-Train, you are likely to see Australia, South Korea, Indonesia and Singapore do the same. If you enjoyed this article, be sure to share & subscribe, as I have kept my proprietary models and will update as major events and additional countries begin to adopt this currency. If you feel that I have missed something or am just flat out wrong, please be sure to let me know in the comments below! Planned articles for the next 14 days: ICO advice from a Venture Capitalist (Follower Request) Paper Wallets (Follower Request) VIVA Analysis (Follower Request) Segregated Witness(Segwit) : Friend or Foe? A Kraken ate my gains... Fundamental Analysis: Stellar Lumens(XLM) Dual-Citizenship and Banking in Panama Rich vs. Wealthy All analysis, numbers and projections are my own. Core information was gathered from reliable sources, such as the World Bank, IMF, CIA world fact book, eia.gov and more.
How to send and receive money in India from other countries
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